A monocyte count is part of a complete blood count and is expressed either as a percentage of monocytes among all white blood cells or as absolute numbers. Both may be useful but these cells became valid diagnostic tools only when monocyte subsets are determined. Monocytosis. Monocytosis is the state of excess monocytes in the peripheral blood. It may be indicative of various disease states . Having low monocytes or high monocytes at the time of testing does not always indicate there is a problem, so follow-up tests may be required. Monocytes are from 0.2-1.0×109/l (2-10%). When monocytes are high, it's. Monocytes (Absolute) Optimal Result: 0.1 - 0.9 x10E3/uL, 0.10 - 0.90 abs, or 0.10 - 0.90 x10^9/L. Monocytes are cells that work in our immune system and thus belong to the white blood cell family. Lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils levels are assessed through a blood differential test (also called a white blood cell. We have been using the the Gibco Serum-Free Macrophage Medium for years at our institute for culturing human monocyte-derived macrophages. The medium is supplemented with antibiotics and either. Descriptions of monocyte-derived macrophages in scientific literature are usually referring to cells cultured this way. Monocytes grow as a mixture of adherent and non-adherent cells with the proportion of adherent cells dependent on the culture medium and activation stimuli (if added)
Monocytes, along with other types of white blood cells, are a vital part of your immune system. They help fight off germs and keep you healthy. So, what does it mean if your monocyte level is high Medium is not changed for 10 days, and thereafter cultures are fed weekly by replacement of half of the medium with fresh complete medium. Monocyte cultures generally remain apparently healthy for about 3 months, at which time the cells detach from the substratum and die despite continued feeding
Absolute monocytes per microliter of blood (mcL) Adults. 0.2 to 0.95 x 10 3. Infants from 6 months to 1 year. 0.6 x 10 3. Children from 4 to 10 years. 0.0 to 0.8 x 10 3. Men tend to have higher. Low monocyte count can mean that you have a vitamin deficiency, anemia, or are under a lot of stress. The normal range of monocytes is usually between 2%-10% of your total white blood cell count. Having a high or low monocyte count doesn't usually cause symptoms itself. However, you may notice symptoms of the condition that is affecting your. 1. Human Monocytes Culture. Depending on the culture medium used (RPMI 1640, DMEM, X-VIVO 15™), the proportion of adherent and non-adherent monocytes grown in your culture will vary. If your mixture has a high percentage of adherent cells, you may have difficulty changing culture vessels or collecting cells intact
I used Gibco RPMI 1640 ( 4.5g/L D-Glucose, 2.383 g/L Hepes Buffer, L-Glutamine, 1.5g/L Sodium Bicarbonate, 110mg/L Sodium Pyruvate) medium supplemented with 2% Human serum for monocytes plastic. Both Ly6C + and Ly6C mid monocytes respond to pro-inflammatory cues, such as the CCR2 ligand CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and are recruited to inflammatory lesions 22,28 (d) A low monocyte count, called monocytopenia, can mean a person has an underlying infection or bone marrow problem. Monocytopenia can be caused by any conditions that lower the body's white blood cell count. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell. They make up anywhere from one to 10 percent of all white blood cells in the human body
Monocytes treated with Auto, FBS-WF or AU-WF medium generated a significant higher yield of vital cells after 7 days in culture compared with FBS-only medium (mean difference (MD)=0.318, P=0.01. Monocyte Attachment Medium, e.g. 15 ml Medium per T-75 flask. Use a seeding den-sity of 1 million/cm2 for mononuclear cells with a monocyte content of ≥25% and 1.5 million/cm2 for a monocyte content of <25%. Incubate for 1 - 1.5 hours at 5% CO 2 and 37°C in the incubator without an PBMC Monocytesa Monocytes ater Yield Purity (x106) (%) percoll gradient (x106) (%) (% HG) 24.8 31 7.8 82.4 96.9 76 40.3 25.1 82.0 95.4 345 20.4 63.9 91 95.2 HG: height and granularity; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained from Ficoll-Hypaque gradient; a: the monocyte percentage from PBMC was determined as shown in Fig. 1. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association; Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Intervention
To determine whether monocytes can be generated from CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors in large numbers, cord blood CD34 + cells were first expanded for 3-10 days in X-VIVO 10 medium supplemented with FCS, stem cell factor (SCF), thrombopoietin (TPO), and Flt-3 Ligand (Flt-3L), and then differentiated in IMDM medium supplemented with FCS, SCF, Flt-3L, IL-3 and M-CSF for 7-14 days An acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 was used as a human model of monocytes. Our work revealed that conditioned medium from the tumor cell lines induced activation and differentiation of THP-1 cells. The changes involved increased expression of CD68, a macrophage differentiation marker Mo-DC Differentiation Medium is an optimized ready-to-use medium for the effective differentiation of monocytes to immature Mo-DCs. Detailed product information The Mo-DC Differentiation Medium contains Interleukin-4 and GM-CSF . Thus, the time-consuming and costly immunomagnetic purification of monocytes is not necessary. In addition, this method offers the advantage of being selective for viable.
High levels of monocytes due to infection. This is the most common cause. Monocyte levels elevate both due to a simple infection, such as a cold, as well as a chronic infection, like tuberculosis. However, blood tests that show high levels of monocytes are non-specific Hi Tiki5, Mid cells are cells that fall in a particular size range. The percentage and absolute counts are determined for lymphocytes, neutrophil, and mid-size population of monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, blasts, and other immature cells. This Mid-cell term appears to be a Cell-Dyn proprietary method of using mid cells instead of. Monocytes are a type of leukocyte or white blood cell which play a role in immune system function. Depending on a patient's level of health, monocytes make up between one and three percent of the total white blood cells in the body. They can be counted as part of a blood test, and changes in their levels can indicate changes in a patient's health Monocytosis is a medical condition in which there is an elevation in the presence of a type of white blood cell known as a monocyte. Monocytes are formed in the bone marrow and play an important role in normal immune system functioning. Inflammatory disorders, infection and certain forms of cancer are the most common causes of monocytosis Monocytes Spin Medium. 15,00 €. Tous les prix s'entendent hors taxes, hors frais d'expédition. Pour l'isolement in vitro de monocytes humains à partir de sang entier frais ou de couche leuco-plaquettaire. SKU. 60-00095. Order within 01h and 32min for same day dispatch. Delivery between 16/07/2021 and 19/07/2021
Adherent monocytes are then further differentiated into M0 macrophages in the presence of M-CSF for 4 days in defined IF9S medium. hiPSC-mono (1.5 × 10 6 cells; one cryovial) are seeded either into four or six wells of a 6-well plate, in order to get a confluent monolayer of M0 macrophages in 4 and 6 days, respectively Serum free medium for monocyte-macrophage differentiation; Aravind Tallam @Aravind_Tallam. 09 October 2012 10 337 Report. For the differentiation of human primary monocytes to macrophages, I use human serum added to RPMI. Due to some problems with the human serum, the cells isolated from a lot of blood samples couldn't differentiate fully and.
Briefly when the monocytes were separated through the adherence method as discussed above, the cells were cultured for 7 days with complete medium and allowed to differentiate into macrophages in an incubator at 37°C, 5% CO 2 air mixture at a density of 1 x 10 6 cells/ml. Macrophages were harvested as already described . Macrophages were then. The Pan Monocyte Isolation Kit is an indirect magnetic labeling system for the isolation of untouched monocytes from human PBMCs. This Kit allows the simultaneous enrichment of classical (CD14++CD16-), non classical (CD14+CD16++) and intermediate (CD14++CD16+) monocytes.1 Highly pure unlabeled monocytes are obtained by depletion of the magnetically labeled cells. | US Monocyte Disorders. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that fight certain infections and help other white blood cells remove dead or damaged tissues, destroy cancer cells, and regulate immunity against foreign substances. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then enter the blood, where they account for about 1 to 10% of the.
Monocyte Differentiation Medium, supplied by Miltenyi Biotec, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and mor Overview. In humans, the minor population of blood monocytes consists of the intermediate monocyte subset (CD14 ++ CD16 +) and the non-classical monocyte subset (CD14 + CD16 ++), which together account for approximately 15% or less of the total blood monocyte population.Intermediate monocytes express medium levels of CCR2, high levels of CX3CR1, and are CCR5 + Specialized media, optimized for the unique requirements of Monocytes.. Carefully crafted, quality tested. CAI media are tested for sterility to confirm no bacteria, yeast or fungi contamination, and QC tests for correct pH, osmolality and lack of endotoxins
Monocyte-macrophages exposed to malondialdehyde altered-LDL in the presence of stimulated lymphocyte culture medium accumulated substantially less cholesteryl esters than did cells in control medium. We propose that substances produced by stimulated lymphocytes may be useful in protecting macrophages from cholesteryl ester accumulation Bring medium to 37°C. Optional: Supplement media with 1% penicillin-streptomycin (5,000 units/mL). Resuspend cell concentration to 2 x 10 6 cells/mL in complete RPMI 1640 medium. Transfer resuspended cell solution to a cell culture dish. Incubate the culture dish for 24 hours in 5% CO 2 incubator at 37°C to allow the monocytes to adhere to dish Monocyte differentiation to M1/M2-like macrophages. For M1/M2 monocyte differentiation freshly isolated human CD14 + monocytes were plated in a 100 × 20 mm tissue culture dish (USA Scientific) at a concentration of 1 × 10 6 cells per 1 mL of 10% HAB medium. For M1-like monocyte differentiation GM-CSF (1 μg/mL) was added to fresh media every. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using either plastic adhesion, negative, or CD14 pos selection. Monocyte yield and viability were measured using NucleoCounter ® NC-250™. Monocyte purity was evaluated using flow cytometry. Monocytes were identified as CD11b/TLR2 positive events (C,D) Monocyte latex bead phagocytosis in standard medium and in autologous serum-(C) percentage bead positive monocytes (37-4°C); (D) bead positive monocyte median fluorescence intensity (MFI) ratio (37/4°C) [Medium-PD = 34, Controls = 39; Serum-PD = 25, Controls = 27; p-values relate to the significance of paired t-tests performed.
Existing data about the prognostic value of absolute count of blood cells in gastric cancer was limited. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of absolute count of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet in gastric cancer patients. From September 2008 to March 2015, 3243 patients treated with radical gastrectomy were enrolled in the. Monocytes can differentiate into inflammatory or anti-inflammatory subsets. Upon tissue damage or infection, monocytes are rapidly recruited to the tissue, where they can differentiate into tissue macrophages or dendritic cells. Given the rapid progress in monocyte research from broad spectrum of inflammatory diseases, there is a need t
Lenalidomide is an analog of thalidomide, with potent anticancer activity demonstrated in several hematological malignancies. It has immunomodulatory properties, being able to enhance the activation of different types of immune cells, which results in antitumor activities. Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal in the immune response, and different immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these cells. These monocytes are capable of maturing into monocyte-derived macrophages within tissues . Current understanding of tissue macrophages indicates that many tissue-resident macrophages are self-renewing populations that arise from fetal progenitors and require minimal input from circuiting adult monocytes in a healthy environment ( 55 , 94 ) Monocytes were cultured in a 1:1 ratio of 10% HAB medium and TCM plus the addition of IL-4 (1 μg/mL), IL-10 (1 μg/mL), and M-CSF (1 μg/mL). Medium and cytokines were refreshed every other day and cells were harvested on day 7 using a non-enzymatic cell dissociation solution (Sigma Aldrich). Monocyte differentiation to M1/M2-like macrophage
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by vasculopathy and fibrosis, which can be subclassified into diffuse cutaneous (dSSc) and limited cutaneous (lSSc) subtypes. Previous studies suggest that an increase in monocytes can be a hallmark of various inflammatory diseases, including SSc. Our aim was to evaluate circulating blood monocyte subpopulations (classical. The resistance of CMML monocytes to apoptosis was validated by analysis of AnV-FITC and PI-stained monocytes collected from 21 patients with CMML (supplemental Table 2, cohort 2) and 30 age-matched healthy donors that were cultured for 4 days in serum-free medium . This resistance to apoptosis could be detected in a shorter assay in which.
p>Culture Medium for Monocyte Precusor Cells V-1 (PMC-BMMC-COS) Monocyte Culture Medium (PMC-BMMG-COS) is formulated for in vitro differentiation of monocyte precursor cells into matur CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human PB mononuclear cells using the EasySep™ Human Monocyte Isolation Kit. The isolated monocytes (day 0) were plated at 1x106 cells/mL in ImmunoCult™-SF Macrophage medium supplemented with 50 ng/mL M-CSF. On day 3 or 4, half the original volume of mediu As mentioned earlier, a normal range is between one percent and 10% of total white blood cells, although some suggest it is between two percent and 10%. Absolute monocyte ranges are considered normal if they are between 200/400 to 600/1,000 cells per microliter of blood. Having low monocytes or high monocytes at the time of testing does not. Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights off bacteria, viruses and fungi. Monocytes are the biggest type of white blood cell in the immune system. Originally formed in the bone marrow. 8. Aspirate medium from the chips' medium inlets and medium outlets 9. Add 50 µL monocyte cell suspension to the chips' medium inlets and outlets 10. Incubate the OrganoPlate® on the rocker (7° inclination, 4 min interval) at 37˚C, 5% CO 2 for 15 min 11. Aspirate medium from the chips' inlets and outlets 12
The density gradient medium most commonly used (Ficoll or Ficoll-Paque) contains sodium diatrizoate, polysaccharides, and water, and has a density of 1.08 g/mL. This medium is denser than lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets (meaning these will remain above it), but less dense than granulocytes and erythrocytes, which will drop below it monocyte & lymphocyte; white blood cells (leukocytes), 400x at 35mm. human blood smear (wright s stain). the monocyte is the largest wbc, is phagocytic, and transforms into a macrophage in the tissues. the lymphocyte is a very important immune syste - monocyte stock pictures, royalty-free photos & image Human iPSC-derived monocytes are seeded using Macrophage Maintenance Medium (ax0600) into 96-well plates at a density of 50,000 cells/cm 2. During maturation the spherical monocytes adhere strongly to the culture surface and as they differentiate to macrophages their morphology becomes rounded and elongated. Axol iPSC-Derived Macrophages show. The invention provides a separation medium for separating monocytes in peripheral blood, mainly aiming at providing a monocyte suspension for a flow cytometry detection method. The separation medium comprises 1.8-2.2 parts by mass of glucan, 0.8-1.2 parts by mass of urografin, 0.008-0.012 part by mass of fluorocarbon surfactant and 0.08-0.12 part by mass of polyvinylpyrrolidone
Monocyte migration in the mouse was studied mainly in vivo, in that phenotypes of cells recruited to various sites were determined. Sunderkoetter et al. showed that the Ly6Cmed/high are recruited to the inflamed peritoneum, and the Ly6Clow cells, i.e., the murine homologue of the CD14+ CD16+ cells, did not migrate into this site For example, MIP-1α in the cytotrophoblast medium strongly attracted monocytes, well established targets for this molecule 52. The fact that the dose-response curves for monocyte chemotaxis toward cytotrophoblast CM and recombinant MIP-1α were essentially superimposable suggested that this chemokine was a dominant cytotrophoblast-derived. Monocyte Macrophage Dendritic cell Figure 1. Schematic depicting in vivo monocyte differentiation and downstream functions. Monocytes are large, mononuclear leukocytes that are generated in bone marrow from myeloblast progenitors. Subsequently, these cells en - ter peripheral blood circulation and eventually migrate into tissue Monocytes were plated in 6-well tissue culture plates at a density of 1 × 10 6 cells/mL for 45 min allowing monocyte adherence in Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM, Sigma-Aldrich, Zwijndrecht, The Netherlands) supplemented with 2 mM l-glutamine, penicillin (100 U/mL), streptomycin (100 µg/mL) and 1% fetal calf serum (FCS; All.
Monocyte adhesion and chemotaxis are increased by growth of adipocytes in the presence of excess glucose and certain SFAs. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and cultured for 7 days in 5 or 25 mmol/l glucose-containing media with various FFAs (250 μmol/l) with daily medium changes. U937 monocytes, prelabeled with. A: Adhesion of monocytes to AT-derived ECs pretreated or not with native, heated, or ether-extracted adipocyte-conditioned medium. The number of adherent monocytes was expressed as the percentage of the endothelial nuclei, and the values are means ± SE of the percentage of control (n = 4). **P < 0.01 Increased expression of monocyte tissue factor and soluble CD40 ligand at mid-term follow-up following percutaneous coronary intervention. Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis Wolters Kluwer N.V. 1473-5733 10.1097/MBC.0B013E3283442CC
Effect of monocytes on fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction and degradation in long term co-culture. Fibroblasts (4 × 10 5 /ml) or blood monocytes (4 × 10 5 /ml) alone, or in combination, were cast into type I collagen gels and floated in serum-free DMEM. (a) The medium was changed every 5 days. Gel area was measured daily Ly6G (Lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G6D) is a 21-25kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked differentiation antigen that is expressed by myeloid-derived cells in a tightly developmentally-regulated manner in the bone marrow. Monocytes express Ly6G transiently during bone marrow development, while Ly6G expression in granulocytes and peripheral neutrophils directly correlates with the. . However, the molecular and biochemical events underlying monocyte maturation are not fully understood. We have used freshly isolated human monocytes and the model human monocyte cell line, THP-1. Objective: To assess spontaneous and stimulated secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by peritoneal macrophages in women with and without endometriosis.Design: Macrophages were isolated from the peritoneal fluid and cultured for different periods of time (6, 20, and 44 hours) without any stimulation to determine spontaneous.
Monocytes grow as a mixture of adherent and nonadherent cells, with the proportion of adherent cells dependent on the culture medium and activation stimuli (if added). If autologous serum is used, RPMI 1640 culture medium is recommend such as Gibco Advanced RPMI 1640 Medium supplemented with 5% FBS Monocyte expression of the NKG2D ligand MICA promotes NK cell antitumor activity. A, Monocyte MICA expression at baseline (medium) and following treatment with LPS or IFNα was evaluated by flow cytometry. B, Untreated and LPS-treated monocytes were cocultured with NK cells, trastuzumab-coated SK-BR-3 cells, and IL12
Monocytes are generated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow (left) and enter the blood stream (middle) in response to different microenvironmental cues. In homeostasis, classical monocytes are continuously recruited to populate DC and macrophage levels in the intestine and dermis and bone-degrading osteoclasts at the bone surface Starting with PBMCs prepared from human whole peripheral blood, the monocyte cell content (CD14+CD45+) of the isolated fraction obtained without (middle plots) or with (bottom plots) EasySep™ Human Platelet Removal Cocktail is typically 89.7 ± 3.4% and 87.3 ± 4.5%, respectively (gated on CD45, mean ± SD fo , B Cell, NK Cell, Monocyte Cell and Other Cell Types Markets - Independent Analysis of Annual Sales in US$ Thousand for Years 2012 through 201 Homocysteine-induced differentiation of the Ly-6C(mid) subset was prevented by catalase plus superoxide dismutase and the NAD(P)H oxidase inhibitor apocynin. CONCLUSIONS: HHcy promotes differentiation of inflammatory monocyte subsets and their accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions via NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated oxidant stress. author
Different subsets of macrophages contribute to inflammation during tissue injury or resolution of inflammation and tissue repair, but the distinct subsets of macrophages that support tissue repair are not well defined. Ikeda et al . now define a role for immunoregulatory Ym1+Ly6Chi monocytes during the recovery phase of tissue injury. Bone marrow-resident precursors of Ly6Chi monocytes. Verification of Classical Monocyte Percentage in Differentiating CMML Cases. To determine if the expression of CD14 and CD16 on monocytes could differentiate CMML cases in our hands, we first looked at MO1%. The gating strategy for determination of the monocyte subsets and representative dot plots are shown in Figure 2. Findings were. Plasma monocyte chemotactic protein Medium & Serums. 07 Aug. Antibodies Assay Kits Biology Cells cDNA Clia Kits Culture Cells Devices DNA DNA Templates DNA Testing Elisa Kits Enzymes Equipments Exosomes Gels Isotypes Medium & Serums NATtrol Panel Particles PCR Pcr Kits Peptides Reagents Recombinant Proteins Ria Kits RNA Test Kits. FIGURE 2 Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is accompanied by changes in proteoglycan synthesis. A, SDS-PAGE (3.5% stacking gel, 4-12% resolving gel) analysis of 35 SO 4-labeled proteoglycans secreted into the medium by monocytes (Monos) and macrophages (Macs). Gels were loaded with 40,000 dpm/lane and evaluated by phosphorimage analysis Hyperhomocysteinemia promotes inflammatory monocyte generation and accelerates atherosclerosis in transgenic cystathionine beta-synthase-deficient mice. Sign in | Create an account. https://orcid.org.
Adherence-isolated monocytes (medium) were isolated blood monocytes (medium) were stimulated with 25 mM of ethanol, 1 stimulated with 1 crg/ml of LPS (experiments 1 to 3) or 1 cLg/ml of SEB (experi- pg/ml of LPS. or with their combination for 24 hr. IL-10 levels were determined in ments 4 to 6) in the presence or absence of 25 or 100 mM of. Ly6CHigh monocytes. IL-23KO mice showed reduced expression of the monocyte IL-23KO mice showed reduced expression of the monocyte chemokines Ccl4 and Ccl7, but not Ccl2, as well as reduced Ly6C High Ly6G Mid
پـشـکـنـیـنـی Complete Blood Count) CBC ) ئامادەکردنی: م . ئەردەلان عبدالحميد بۆ پێوانی پێکھاتە جیاوازەکانی خوێن ، کە یارمەتی دەرە لە دیاری کردنی چەند جۆرێکی جیاوازی نەخۆشی وەک (ھەوکردن ، شێرپەنجە.. Redox regulation of MAPK phosphatase 1 controls monocyte migration and macrophage recruitment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012. Reto Asmis. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 11 Full PDFs related to this paper. Read Paper The goals of this study were to explore the expression profiles and functional networks of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) involved in regulating the function of monocytes and to clarify the mechanisms by which MSCs exert immunoregulatory effects on monocytes. MSCs and CD14+ monocytes were separately isolated
In brief, 500,000 monocytes were transferred to the upper layer of a Thin Cert™ set in 10 ml culture medium and the lower compartment contained 2 ml DMEM with 10% FBS supplemented with monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) at a concentration of 20 ng/ml to facilitate the migratory process of monocytes Human decidua basalis mesenchymal stem/multipotent stromal cells (DBMSCs) inhibit endothelial cell activation by inflammation induced by monocytes. This property makes them a promising candidate for cell-based therapy to treat inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis. This study was performed to examine the ability of DBMSCs to protect endothelial cell functions from the damaging effects. The study evaluates the sub-acute toxicity and antioxidant potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus against CCl4-induced toxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. The ethanolic leaf extract of C. citratus was prepared by solvent maceration method. The phytochemicals present in the extract were determined using standard methods. The potential sub-acute toxicities were evaluated using. Paratuberculosis is a disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map). Vaccination is the most cost-effective control method. However, despite the fact that macrophages are the main target cells for this pathogen, the precise mechanisms behind the response of the macrophage to Map infection and how it is modified by vaccination are yet poorly understood In addition, monocytes were preincubated with or without 25 ng/ml rIL-10, 50 ng/ml rM-CSF, or rIL-10 plus rM-CSF, and the cells were washed with culture medium and were incubated at a density of 5 × 10 4 cells per 200 μl in 96-well plates (Corning Incorporated) with or without 10 ng/ml human rTNF-α (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), 30 μM.
MHCII − monocytes (asterisks) are round and MHCII + monocytes (arrowheads) are elongated. Scale bar, 50μm. On the bottom is a quantification of monocyte size 24 h after PBS or DT injection (left graph) or, depending on their MHCII expression, 24 h after DT injection (right graph). Pooled data from 2 experiments, n = 4. Student's t test